Wednesday, October 7, 2009

rice water for beauty



we make an appoinment with prof tjahjadi. fisnished up our powerpoint. talk with confidence. done. so we have to move on writing the report and poster!
here we go

the GREEN crews.

after presenting our compost fertilizer. satisfied.

we love rock and roll. we are happy. so we'll pose like hell.

this is melati with bamboo

eza with bamboo

nora with bamboo

linda with bamboo

najibah with bamboo

oh! GREEN crews.

oh! GREEN crew's in front of malim sarjana complex. thanx prof tjahjadi.

oh! GREEN line up

p/s : our group have finished presenting our compost fertilizer. how about other groups? WISH YOU LUCK.

the COST of being GREEN

Who bears the cost of the world 'going Green'?
When saving the future might inconvene
Our freedom to travel, to consume to extreme,
to create and discard plastic waste by the yard?
Or slavishly poison our seas?

Who pays to be Green? You? Them? or Me?,
If the cost is in jobs and our prosperity?
When politics sells its integrity
To corporate, capitalist, inherent greed?
So we increase our wealth at the price of our health?
and trade the clean air that we need.

Who pays for the cost of a thousand flights lost,
or cities of starving, who shoulders that cost?
Does OPEC accept that it owes us a debt
For the millions and millions and millions and millions, and millions and millions….
Of dollars its made for itself. At what cost?

Who seeks to reduce all this energy use
When for fifty years now, we’ve all had it so good
When we might have to pay a bit more for our food
Go by foot or by bike when we’re not in the mood?
With lives counted cheaper than Shares on the Ether,
Is it too much to ask if we would?

Who gives up on gain to save dry Spanish plains
from a future of droughts or earth-stripping rains?
Who’ll rescue the Arctic, all melted away
Or the snows of Mont Blanc, now renamed ‘Mont Grey’?
No, just be rich and well fed. When the planet is dead
There’ll be no one left to pay.

As long as we count our wealth in amounts,
Sell our souls for our goals and our credit accounts
Keep our heating turned up and don’t voice our doubts
Ignoring the warnings and cyclonic stormings
We can go on believing this wealth we are stealing
Will save us from Globally warming.

So here’s to the Poles and their prosperous goals
Pump out your poisons and dig up your coal
Make yourselves fortunes and trade-in your souls
For flat-screens TV’s, for cars with AC,
For a life built on excess, on greed and envy
Join us as we kill the planet at will
For it will be your grandchildren who’ll pay.

Go Green…

"Green" is enchantment unparalleled; transforming every beleaguered bone on disdainfully crackled earth; into a festoon of undying replenishment till times beyond eternity,
"Green" is the ultimate magicians wand; perpetuating every speck of the atmosphere with a tranquil so victorious; that it became the smile of each symbiotic countenance alive,
"Green" is the most everlastingly compassionate caress of nature divine; royally accommodating infinite organisms of different shapes, sizes, color and charm into a blanket of invincible frolic and togetherness,
"Green" is the most pricelessly inimitable definition of freshness; incessantly spawning into the undefeated dazzle of optimistic dawn; to enlighten the entire Universe with the colors of brilliant newness,
"Green" is every sore eye's perpetual delight; wholesomely shrugging off every wretched insinuation of monotonous commercialism; with the effervescent new-born foliage of earth divine,
"Green" is the most supremely mollifying tonic to the incarcerated soul; alleviating the most inconspicuous of its sorrow with undying enigmatic whispers; which reverberated till beyond the infinite,
"Green" is the most fragrantly uninhibited dance of every organism alive; as the unsurpassable buckets of rain; pelted unfettered from the belly of fathomless sky,
"Green" is the most pristine shade of prosperity at its unbelievable hilt; shimmering like a new born child replete with only happiness in every flamboyant ray of the sun and the equally royally moonlit night,
"Green" is the destiny which never ever dies; astoundingly proliferating into a boundless landscapes of blooming life; which made the most parasitic robots as the greatest poets till as long as God’s earth survived,
"Green" symbolizes the most blissfully perfect truce between austere white and diabolical black; where the winds of majestic moderation transit every living being to the paths of bountiful righteousness,
"Green" nullifies the very non-existent roots of anarchic depression; profoundly enthralling one and all in the neighborhood with the tantalizing vivaciousness of a fairy; who'd descended down solely to magnetize rustic soil,
"Green" evokes unconquerable desire in every ingredient of the blood; to be one and in perfect unison with Mother nature; let the unbridled beauty of her endless creations harness every aspect of impoverished existence,
"Green" makes you the most unabashed artist alive; as you bewilderingly fathom for the starting point and the horizons; on the infinite canvas of the Lord's panoramic sanctuary,
"Green" makes you the most passionate lover on trajectory of the endless planet; damning all inhibitions to the corpse as you fervently rolled into grasslands of desire—breath intermingled with the breath of your beloved,
"Green" is an ever-pervading rainbow; which charms even the most deadened of mortuary with its rustle and innocent grace; sprinkling quintessential ounces of vibrant life wherever it mystically crept,
"Green" is the ultimate harbinger of all peace and unity on the distraught globe; as it vanquishes every sinister trail of the barbarously marauding devil; with the freshness of love; creation and blessed fruits of the divine,
"Green" radiates an unshakable aura of optimism to the farthest quarter of the world; maintaining the most unbelievably perfect equilibrium between the sky; the earth and diminutive man trespassing in-between,
"Green" represents the free spirit of every continent; race; wind and space under the sky; immortally continuing the chapters of God's sacred creation; by timelessly proliferating into an infinite more of its color and kind,
Therefore what are you waiting for. Go Green. Plant a tree in every barren bit of space that you could lay your hands upon. And then witness your sown children become the most undivided race of togetherness; friendship; love and peace; even centuries after you were dead…

Poems by Greta Akili


O' Wetlands! How I mourn for you,
Death is close at hand,
I am called many names,
Estuarine, mangrove swamp, marsh, bottomlands
And surrounded by mangrove forests,
With oysters stuck to my roots,
Fishes live and depend on me, to feed spawn and grow,
Crabs have homes, tunnels of holes around me,
Turtles pay a visit every year to lay,
And birds of green, little blue and yellow night herons
Reflect upon me.

I also help to protect you, I take in carbon and
Release oxygen for you to breathe
I function like a strainer and a sieve to filter pollutants
From the sea, making it safe for you to swim
I hear two thousand a new millennium
Will I be here for my eco-system and other sisters to survive and flourish?
I am now threatened. I have been cut I am bleeding
Garbage is dumped in and around me I cannot breathe
Filth- Sewage flows into me- I will become sick

Development hotels and airports are building around us
We are dying. Who are the powers that be? Does anyone care?
Will we be saved? Is it already too late?
I hope that we can be saved,
Because in saving us the benefits and gains are so rich,
That we can become millionaires together with MOTHER EARTH

new update about our plant.

latest version

our compost fertilizer


pouring our plant with compost fertilizer

we care!

we love!

and that's it!!

p/s : feel satisfied. hehehe

pH level of soil.

Sweet, sour, or bitter? These are common terms to describe soil ph. Sweet soil is the mid range, or ideal pH levels for most plants. Sour soils are acidic soil, with a low pH level. Some plants prefer a slightly acidic soil. Bitter is used to describe alkaline soils or high pH soil.

Why do nutrients get "locked up" in the soil? The mid range of the pH scale is the optimal range for bacterial growth to promote decomposition, a process that releases nutrients and minerals, making them available to your plants. Mid range pH is also the ideal range for growth of soil microorganisms that convert nitrogen in the air into a form that your plants can use. Outside of the ideal range, both processes are increasingly inhibited.

What Do Fertilizer Components Do?

There are approximately 20 elements necessary or beneficial for plant growth and blooming. Some are derived from air and water - Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) - while others are mostly absorbed from the nutrient solutions we provide. Six of the elements that should be supplied in your fertilizer - the "macronutrients" - are used heavily by plants: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). The remaining essential elements, the micronutrients, are required in small amounts only: boron (B), chlorine (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni). Additionally, it appears that both silicon (Si) and cobalt (Co) may play a beneficial role in plant health.

Below is a brief synopsis of the roles the elements from fertilizers play in the life of your plants:

Nitrogen (N) is a major component of proteins, hormones, chlorophyll, vitamins and enzymes essential for plant life. Nitrogen metabolism is a major factor in stem and leaf growth (vegetative growth). Too much nitrogen can delay or prevent flowering, while deficiencies can cause yellowing of the leaves and stunted growth.

Phosphorus (P) is necessary for photosynthesis, protein formation and almost all aspects of growth and metabolism. It is essential for flowering. Phosphorus deficiency - sometimes associated with purple leaves - results in slow growth, poor flower production or premature loss of flowers.

Potassium (K) is necessary for the formation of sugars, starches, carbohydrates, for protein synthesis and cell division in plants. It helps to control water absorption and loss, improves the physical sturdiness and cold hardiness of your plants, and enhances flower color. Too little potassium can result in mottled, spotted or curled leaves, or a burned look to the leaves.

Sulfur (S) is a structural component of amino acids, proteins, vitamins and enzymes and is essential to produce chlorophyll, so a deficiency usually shows up as light green leaves.

Magnesium (Mg) is a critical structural component of the chlorophyll molecule and is necessary for functioning of plant enzymes to produce carbohydrates, sugars and fats. Magnesium-deficient plants show yellowing between veins of older leaves, and they may appear limp.

Calcium (Ca) plays a role in the functioning of enzymes, is part of the structure of cell walls, helps control the water content of cells, and is necessary for cell growth and division. Some plants must have calcium to take up nitrogen and other minerals. Calcium, once deposited in plant tissue, cannot move to other plant tissues, so must be supplied regularly. Without a sufficient supply of calcium, your plants may display stunted or stopped growth. Other possible symptoms include distorted new growth, black spots on leaves, or yellow leaf margins. Recent studies indicate that calcium apparently plays a much bigger role in plant health than previously thought.

Iron (Fe) is necessary for enzyme functionality and is important for the synthesis of chlorophyll. It is essential for young, actively growing tissues. Iron deficiencies are indicated by the pale color of young leaves followed by yellowing, and large veins. An adequate supply of soluble iron in the plant nutrient also inhibits the formation of phenol compounds, which can kill roots.

Manganese (Mn) is involved in enzyme activity for photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen metabolism. In young leaves, a deficiency may be indicated by a network of green veins on a light green background similar to that seen in an iron deficiency. Dark spotting may occur near the veins. In extreme cases, the light green parts become nearly white, and leaf loss may occur.

Boron (B) is used in cell wall formation, for membrane integrity within cells, for calcium uptake and may aid in the transfer of nutritional sugars between plant parts. Boron affects a variety of plant functions, including flowering, pollen germination, seed development, cell division, water balance, and the movement of hormones. Boron must be available throughout the life of the plant as, like calcium, it is fixed in the plant once absorbed. Deficiencies can lead to very stunted or irregular growth, with leaves that are thick, curled and brittle. Roots can become discolored, cracked and covered with brown spots.

Zinc (Zn) is a component of enzymes or as an important aid in the functioning of them, especially auxins, the plant growth hormones. It is essential to carbohydrate metabolism and protein synthesis. Deficient plants have mottled leaves with irregular chlorotic areas. Zinc deficiency leads to iron deficiency causing similar symptoms.

Copper (Cu) is concentrated in roots of plants and plays a part in nitrogen metabolism. It is a component of several enzymes and may be part of the enzyme systems that use carbohydrates and proteins. Deficiencies can result in the die back of the tips of new growths.

Molybdenum (Mo) is a structural component of the enzyme that reduces nitrates to ammonia. Without it, the synthesis of proteins is blocked and plant growth ceases. Seeds may not form completely, and nitrogen deficiency may occur if plants are lacking molybdenum. Symptoms may include pale green leaves with rolled or cupped margins.

Chlorine (Cl) is involved in osmosis, the ionic balance necessary for plants to take up mineral elements and in photosynthesis. Deficiency symptoms include wilting, stubby roots, chlorosis (yellowing) and bronzing. Flower scent may be decreased.

Nickel (Ni) is required for iron absorption. Plants grown without additional nickel will gradually reach a deficient level at about the time they mature and begin reproductive growth. If nickel is deficient, plants may fail to produce viable seeds.

Sodium (Na) is involved in osmotic (water movement) and ionic balance in plants (much as it is in people).

Cobalt (Co) is required for nitrogen fixation, so a deficiency could result in nitrogen deficiency symptoms.

Silicon (Si) is found as a component of cell walls. Plants with supplies of soluble silicon produce stronger, tougher cell walls making them more heat and drought tolerant. There is also some evidence that silicon plays a role in the prevention of fungal infections in the case of tissue damage.

special about rice water excess

by pouring the rice water excess to our plant, it will decrease the acidity of the soil which resulted tree could not absorb nutrient from soil. this problem will be lead to our plant do not growth well and stunt.

Use periodically as sprinkle to soil will reduce the acidity and encourage root growth.

steps to make compost fertilizer

pour the water into the rice pot. swirl the rice until the water turn cloudy.

filter the mixture to get the residue that is the rice.

put the water into a container. leave it for a night.

then finally we can use the rice water excess to watering our plant.

Bamboo Plants

Bamboo plants play an important role for many humans and animals. There are literally hundreds of thousands of people, mainly in Asia, relying on bamboo plants as a source of income. For animals it is no only a habitat but for Gorillas, Pandas and others it is the preferred or only source of food. The bamboo plant has also an important commercial value.

Unfortunately the bamboo plant is in danger because of the explosion of population more and more bamboo forests get chopped down. The bamboo plant is a very valuable and versatile raw material. It is used for building complete houses, making closets or other furniture, producing the popular bamboo blinds, carpets or mats.

The bamboo plant is also a perfect solution for your garden, either as a beautiful plant or used as a bamboo fence. The bamboo plant as a fence is becoming more popular because one bamboo is growing very fast and it is cheap. Pruning bamboo plants is no problem as well.

Although there are more than 1600 different types of bamboo plants, less than 50 are commercially used. Bamboo is a type of grass and the world's fastest growing plant. Can you believe that the bamboo plant growth can be one meter a day for some species? Some can get 10 meters high.

Till today it is still not exactly known how a bamboo plant reproduces itself. Bamboo grows in groups for 5 to 120 years and then sometime, somehow they seed. The old bamboo dies and grows again.

Bamboo plants are known for flexibility and strength. Unbelievable, but its tensile strength compares to that of steel and therefore bamboo has been used in construction for centuries. Still no wonder that one billion people live in bamboo houses, simply because bamboo can be harvested and used cheaply and it grows back in lightning speed. It is a perfect raw material. It can grow from alone and does not need any care. The bamboo plant maintenance is low.

Bamboo has also been used in medicine for treating several diseases. The bamboo plant has so many advantages and usages, it does not surprise that bamboo house plants become more and more popular. Get at least a little bit of bamboo in your home with a lucky bamboo plant.

Nutrients Needed for Plants to Grow

Sixteen Nutrients Needed for Plants to Grow

Everyone knows the basic needs that make plants grow:

* Water
* Air
* Light
* Suitable temperatures

Water and air provide plants with three necessary nutrients: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, however, in the soil there are thirteen more nutrients needed for plants to grow. This is why a soil test can help you grow healthy, verdant plants. Once you have your soil report, you'll be able to provide the specific nutrients it lacks.

Generally these nutrients are divided into two groups, and are arranged according to the quantities needed by plants.

* Nitrogen - promotes leaf and stem growth. When the soil lacks sufficient nitrogen, growth is reduced and leaves turn a pale yellowish-green. When soil is cold and wet, nitrogen supplies in the soil aren't as available to the plants. Too much nitrogen in the soil can lead to a potassium deficiency.

* Phosphorus – this nutrient is critical in the germination and growth of seeds, flowers, fruit, and roots. When phosphorus is deficient, growth is reduced and leaves fall off prematurely. Plants lacking phosphorus produce dull, bluish-green leaves that turn a purplish or bronze color with brown edges. Just like nitrogen, too much phosphorus may lead to potassium deficiency.

* Potassium - promotes hearty, disease-resistance growth. Without adequate potassium, growth is stunted and leaves grow close together. Leaf tips and edges become brown and edges curl. Too much potassium in your soil can lead to calcium and magnesium deficiencies.

* Calcium – a vital component in cell walls of plants, calcium is essential for root growth. Without adequate calcium roots develop poorly and leaves become distorted and often turn brown.

* Magnesium – this nutrient is necessary for chlorophyll production and plays a vital role in most enzyme reactions. If your soil lacks the proper amount of magnesium, the deficiency causes varying symptoms in different plants. Most often symptoms include things like yellowing leaves that may suddenly fall off without withering. Too much magnesium could cause a calcium deficiency.

* Sulfur – A necessary nutrient for chlorophyll formation. Too little sulfur produces slow growth that generates small round leaves that are stiff and brittle. Leaves drop and tip buds die.


* Iron – This trace element is needed for chlorophyll formation and oxygen transfer. Without adequate iron, leaves yellow (but leaf veins remain green). If you add too much lime to your soil, it can lead to an iron deficiency.

* Manganese – works as a channel for a variety of enzymes and is essential for chlorophyll formation. Too little manganese causes a variety of indicators depending on the type of plant. The most common signs include yellowing leaves with green veins or grayish-white specks that appear on the leaves. Too much manganese may deplete iron in the soil and cause symptoms similar to those exhibited with a lack of manganese.

* Boron – works as a vehicle for the interchange of sugars, for reproduction, and for cell intake of water. Without adequate boron your plants will be distorted with hollow stems and malformed fruit. Other symptoms include scorched, curled and sometimes mottled leaves.

* Zinc – important for the production of proteins. This nutrient affects how big plants grow and whether or not they mature. Lack of zinc produces less fruit and brings about yellowing of leaves between veins often accompanied by purple or dead spots with small, deformed leaves growing close together.

* Copper – this is another nutrient important for the production of proteins and plays and important role in reproduction. If your plants don't get enough copper they will display bluish-green leaves that might wither or never unfold. Lack of copper may also form rosettes on growing tips.

* Molybdenum - this nutrient is vital to nitrate enzymes and the formation of root nodules in beans and peas. Without adequate supplies of molybdenum, leaves produce yellow mottling and dead spots and often growing tips are distorted or killed.

* Chlorine – Lack of the right amount of chlorine in you soil might affect carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis. This deficiency leads to stubby roots and wilting.

about composed fertilizer.

Compost fertilizer was an organic matter that have been decomposed. Making compost fertiliser of organic waste material not only can reduce rubbish, in fact its able to fertilize land in our garden.

Compost fertilizer produced when organic matter decaying and breach to abundant material with nutrient called “humus” through heat and respiration which is done by organism in land (worm, ant, bacteria and fungus). Anything that is an organic matter, for example leaf and food left-over can become compost fertilizer. Compost fertilizer used in manufacturing that help to resolve many environmental problems if perpetrated in one community and participated by many individuals.

some extra information

rice water also contains valuable nutrients for houseplants. Using it is also a wonderful way to conserve water and a great way to take some of the worry out of over-fertilizing. The starches from leftover rice water will help encourage beneficial soil bacteria, while the vitamins and minerals will add small amounts of NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) to the soil. One thing to keep in mind when using water from cooking on your houseplants is to make sure the water has cooled to room temperature before you use it. It's also best to avoid using water that you have added salt to. Just about any clear or light-colored water that is left over after cooking is probably okay to use as long as it doesn't contain salts. This includes using water from cooking hard-boiled eggs, pasta and vegetables. If you have a freshwater fish aquarium, save some water for your houseplants every time you clean it.


we buy the soil.

then the polybag.

we put the soil into the polybag. 3/4 full.

this will be supposed our result. maybe.

Tuesday, October 6, 2009

gasping for air.

He saw a dead crow
in a drain

near the post office.

He saw an old man

gasping for air
and a baby

barely able to breathe
in a crowded morning clinic.

This land is so rich.
Why should we suffer like this?
I want clean air
for my grandchildren.
I want the damned fools
to leave the forest alone.
I want the trees to grow,
the rivers run free,
and the earth covered with grass.
Let's the politicians plan
how we may live with dignity,
now and always.

by A. Samad Said (1985)

updating project.


here we want to inform to all of you that out project in compose fertilizer are on move ! we will upload our project soon.

evolution of human

soil erosion
human population
lot of human in the world
global warming
global warming


A full understanding of the challenges facing humanity requires knowledge of the evolution of the roles of technology, population expansions, cultural mores, climate, disease and warfare in changing human attitudes and responses through time. This is especially the case if the past is to be used in more sophisticated ways than as a simplistic analogue of projected future conditions. We also know that assessment of the sensitivity or vulnerability of modern landscapes and ecosystems to future human activities and climate can be greatly improved by knowing the rates and directions of past trajectories in key processes such as land cover, soil erosion and flooding, observing how thresholds have been transgressed and deducing the natural or pre-impact patterns of environmental variability. Already, such knowledge is leading to the improved formulation of resource management strategies.

The present nature and complexity of socio-ecological systems are heavily contingent on the past; we cannot fully appreciate the present condition without going back decades, centuries or even millennia. As we are witnessing today with global warming, current societal actions may reverberate, in climatic and many other ways, for centuries into the future. As such, there is the real danger that our visions of the future are becoming unconstrained by knowledge of what has already occurred, at least in part because information about human-environment interactions in the historical past has not been well organized for this purpose or properly utilized. If we continue to operate in ignorance or denial of this integrated historical understanding, we run the very real risk of mirroring the paths of the Easter Islanders, the Classic Maya or the Roman Empire. But if we can adequately learn from our integrated history, we can create a sustainable and desirable future for our species.


Humans depend upon the environment, modify it, adapt to it in short, they interact with it. Humans have transformed the environment and adjusted to it, creating many different places on Earth. Humans affect the environment and the environment affects humans. In order to understand our world it is vital to understand not only its people but also the environments which sustain them. Most contemporary human-induced environmental changes have not been planned or intended. Many of the effects humans have on the environment are not anticipated.

World solutions are required to address world problems such as ozone depletion, loss of biodiversity, and climate change. Geography is the one discipline that bridges the physical and social sciences and can help students, and the public at large, understand the processes which transform our planet.

"...humankind is dependent upon an earth incapable of supporting infinite demands and capable both of being improved and of being damaged by the way in which it is used.
The ways people interact with the environment depend upon three factors: the nature of the environment; the culture and values of the human group; and their level of technology.

Environmental Relationship (ecological perspectives)

Environmental Relationship (ecological perspectives)

1) Changing forest value and ecosystem management
A growing number of social scientists and other observers have discerned a fundamental shift in environmental values in recent decades. A "new environmental paradigm" of humans and nature is challenging the longstanding constellation of values, attitudes, and beliefs that form the "dominant social paradigm" through which many in industrialize societies view the world.' The dominant social paradigm emphasizes economic growth, control of nature, faith in science and technology, ample reserves of natural resources, the substitutability of resources, and a dominant role for experts in decision making. In striking contrast, key themes of the new environmental paradigm include sustainable development, harmony with nature, skepticism toward scientific and technological fixes, finite natural resources, limits to substitution, and a strong emphasis on public involvement in decision making.
Professional forestry in the United States is also in the midst of a paradigmatic challenge- a new resource management paradigm-that is related to the above shift .The old paradigm, "multiple-use sustained-yield"' forest management, or traditional forestry, has guided public forest managers for many decades. Sustained yield dates back to the 18th and 19th century central European tradition of forest management that aimed to maximize and sustain the yield of a single resource~ommercial timber (Behan, 1991). The introduction of sustained-yield forestry to North America in the 1890s was an important innovation, intended to ameliorate the devastating exploitation of forests in the 19th century. Multiple-use forestry began to be discussed in the 1930s, but was not seriously considered until after World War I1 when demand for recreation, wildlife, water, and other nontimber forest resources began to increase. The basic idea of multiple-use forestry was to broaden forestry's traditional focus on timber production to include the production of other commodities. Multiple-use forestry was required by law on the national forests beginning with the Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act of 1960. But the practice of multiple-use forest management has fallen short of the ideal-the long-held doctrine of "timber primacy" has continued to dominate forestry practice (Clary, 1986;Gliick, 1987; Hays, 1988; McQuillan, 1990; Shepard, 1990). As late as 1992, the president of the Society of American Foresters wrote ". . . timber comes first" (Barton, 1992). Shands (1988) has argued that "multiple use has become a pejorative term that many people believe is synonymous with management that emphasizes timber production to the detriment of other forest resources" .The emerging forestry paradigm that is challenging traditional forestry is called by various names: new forestry, new perspective forest ecosystem management, holistic forestry, sustainable forestry, multi-resource forest management, multi-value forest management, kinder and gentler forestry, and, by its detractors, a "gimmick" (O'Keefe,1990), "glossy dogma" (Kerr, 1990), and "hype" (Zuckerman, 1992).

New forestry is probably the most widely used term to date, but the more descriptive "forest ecosystem management" is becoming more common. Alternative definitions of ecosystem management are even more numerous than its names. Clark and Stankey (1991) conducted a Delphi mail questionnaire that, among other things, asked participants what they felt should be included in a definition of new perspectives (ecosystem management). Almost 90 wide-ranging items were suggested by respondents as elements to be considered in a definition. These elements were grouped into six distinct categories. Some respondents defined ecosystem management primarily as an ecologically based approach to forest management, which would apply ecological information and principles. A central theme of this view is that ecosystem management should follow nature's lead, i.e., mimic natural disturbance patterns and recovery strategies, leave biological legacies such as standing live and dead trees and fallen logs, and so forth. Others viewed ecosystem management primarily as a socially based approach to forest management that would focus on changing public values associated with forests. A central theme of this view is that ecosystem management should recognize these values and make forestry practices more responsive to them. Other categories of definitions contained certain elements of the ecologically and socially based definitions: an integrative approach, more participatory decision making, and improved scientific understanding. The final group of respondents were skeptical of ecosystem management and questioned the motives of those promoting the concept. Despite the wide range of views, respondents expressed a surprisingly high level of agreement about the diverse definitions in a subsequent questionnaire, indicating an appreciation of other perspectives.